Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) and Premenstrual Exacerbation (PME)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual exacerbation (PE) are specific components of reproductive mental health. PMDD impacts approximately 5.5% of adolescent and adult women and those assigned female at birth and can be defined as a hormone-based (often thought of as a hormone sensitivity in the brain) mood disorder in which a woman experiences significant mood symptoms during premenstruation with symptoms lessening following menstruation. The experience of PMDD can worsen with reproductive events such as pregnancy. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), which may include emotional and/or physical symptoms during the premenstrual phase, occurs in approximately 80% of women and is not considered the same as PMDD.
PE can be defined as the worsening of symptoms of another disorder, such as generalized anxiety or major depressive disorder, during the premenstrual phase.
Symptoms of PMDD may include:
- Sudden shifts in mood
- Tearfulness or excessive crying
- Increased irritability and frustration
- Depressed or sad mood
- Anxiousness or restlessness
- Changes in sleep and/or appetite
- Physical symptoms such as breast tenderness or swelling, joint or muscle pain, bloating or weight gain
Further information regarding PMDD and PE can be found at https://iapmd.org/
Consider connecting with specialized support in gaining specialized tools to improve your mental health.